Common Misconceptions and Quick Facts about Equine Mortality and Major Medical Insurance

19 10 2014

Last month I wrote about common misconceptions with farm property and liability insurance coverages. This month I am addressing equine mortality and major medical insurance in the hopes of highlighting useful information for everyone. Lisa Steller of Star H Equine Insurance Agency has been a fantastic resource for information and was a major resource for this article as North Carolina’s resident “expert” on all things equine major medical/mortality insurance related. Whereas I typically see issues on the back end after something has gone wrong, Lisa is able to help you on the front end to ensure you have the coverages you need and that you understand what losses your insurance covers and what losses it does not cover.

Let’s start with mortality insurance. Here are some points to remember:

1. While all insurance companies and all individual horse circumstances are a little different, mortality insurance on a horse usually costs about 3-4% of a horse’s value up until the horse reaches 15 years of age. For horses between 15 and 20 years of age, the premium usually runs about 5% of the horse’s value for 15 year olds to about14% of the value for 19 year olds. Finally, equine mortality insurance is typically not available for horses which are 20 years of age or older absent a very expensive, customized policy for a very specific situation.

2. Depending on the circumstances of your situation, there may be conditions or scenarios which are excluded completely from your mortality coverage. Read your policy so you are not surprised if that happens!

3. If you attempt to purchase mortality insurance on a horse for the very first time when the horse is 19 years of age, most insurance companies’ will refuse to insure that horse’s mortality. Insurance companies are understandably much more comfortable continuing to insure a 19 year old horse when they have insured that horse’s mortality for several years (and they have of course had time to collect premium from you over those years as well) than they are taking on a brand new, unknown risk at age 19.

4. Always remember that if your horse gets sick or is injured, you need to call your mortality insurance company ASAP. If you do not notify the company in a timely fashion and the horse dies, the company may be able to deny your mortality claim.

5. Mortality premiums are not usually affected by whether you have previously notified the company of your horse’s illnesses, so agents will tell us that we should not worry that advising the company of our horses’ illnesses will cause the mortality premium to go up if the horse survives the illness. Except in unusual circumstances, mortality premiums are almost always solely based upon age, use and value of the horse, not its health history.

6. One common and difficult situation: your veterinarian says the life of your horse can be preserved – but not its usefulness for your purposes. For example, you have a $20,000 champion reining horse which develops issues with his hooves. Your vet says that a certain treatment is necessary or the horse will founder and die, but the treatment the vet is recommending costs $5,000 and afterwards the horse will no longer be able to participate in reining. You may not have $5,000 or you may prefer instead to spend that $5,000 on a young, green horse which you can develop into a new reiner. If you refuse the treatment which your vet is recommending for your horse and, as a result, your horse founders and dies, your insurance company may be able to deny your mortality insurance claim because you did not elect to have the $5,000 treatment.

7. A necropsy (an autopsy performed on an animal) to determine the cause of a horse’s death is required for all equine mortality claims. This requirement stems in part from the fact that insurance companies do not want to give people an incentive to cause the death of their unwanted horses in order to collect the mortality insurance proceeds.

With regard to equine major medical insurance claims, here are some quick points to remember about this type of coverage and claims:

A. You can sometimes lower the premium cost for your equine major medical coverage by reducing the mortality value of your horse.

B. Major medical coverage premiums are roughly the same for a horse of any age or value, so whether it is 6 months old or 16 years old, worth $500 or $50,000, the premium cost is about the same. Sometimes certain of your horse’s health issues may be excluded from the policy, however. Again, read your policy.

C. Routine health maintenance costs (such as vaccinations) are typically not covered by major medical coverage, nor are veterinarians’ trip charges to your home or your boarding facility, even if your horse is sick or injured.

D. Elective surgery is typically not covered by a major medical policy – for example, complications arising from the gelding of a male horse would not be covered because that surgery is elective. You can usually, however, by paying some extra premium dollars, purchase an endorsement (i.e., additional insurance coverage) to cover elective surgeries if you so desire.

E. As with mortality coverage, major medical coverage requires that the company receive prompt notice of any injury to or illness of your horse. Leave instructions and have the company contact information posted on your horse’s stall door so that someone else at the barn can call the company in case you are not present when the illness or injury occurs.

Last but not least are a few quick facts which pertain to BOTH equine mortality and major medical insurance:

I. Your agent needs a completed and signed application for insurance in order to bind mortality or major medical coverage for you. These coverages cannot be bound over the telephone, so please do not wait to call your agent until you are in the car on the way to pick up your new horse.

II. Equine mortality and major medical coverages are for a specific animal and cannot be switched to another animal. A horse can be added to an existing policy or removed from an existing policy, however. But a new, signed application for that specific animal is required when adding a horse to an existing policy.

III. If you sell your horse, the agent or company will not revise the policy to change it to the new owner’s name. The new owner will need to complete and sign an application for coverage and pay the premium. The prior owner can then cancel the old policy and receive a pro-rated refund of the annual mortality premium and, in some limited cases, of the major medical premium as well.

IV. If a neurectomy has been performed on your horse, it is often no longer insurable for mortality or major medical.

V. Insurance is limited to the value which you paid for the horse, so if you get a $10,000 horse for $5,000, the maximum value the insurance company can place on your horse is $5,000.

Hopefully these quick tips will prove useful to you if you purchase mortality or major medical insurance coverage for any of your equines. The bottom line, as always, is to be sure to read your policy so you know what it does and does not cover.

If you get into a bind and need assistance or just want to ask some questions to avoid getting in a bind, feel free to email me at dburch@rl-law.com. I often will answer a short and simple question for free if you are in North Carolina and I have time and know the answer off the top of my head! Or often know good equine lawyers in other states if you need a referral. If you don’t hear back from me quickly, it’s not because I don’t love you or think you have a great question or because I don’t know the answer (usually), I’m probably just really busy and haven’t had a chance to email back. And you can always buy the first hour of my time for $250 (my usual hourly rate for 2014 is $350). Lots of folks will save up all their equine (and some corporate or real estate) legal questions and short documents and sit with me for an hour and we will do as much as we can during that hour and it’s only $250. You can check out my Twitter feed @nchorselawyer as well as our firm’s Equine Law Group web page at http://www.rl-law.com/equine if you’re interested, and yes, in addition to providing what I hope are interesting and informative stories, this blog and the Twitter feed referenced above are also (in one way or another, I guess) an advertisement for legal services.

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Some Common Misconceptions About Farm Insurance Coverages

24 08 2014

Occasionally I will receive a call from a horse farm owner who wants me to represent them in connection with a complaint to the North Carolina Department of Insurance because their insurance company has not paid them for a claim they believe should be covered by their insurance. Sometimes it is a claim for damage to property. Sometimes it is a claim related to teaching riding lessons. Sometimes it involves other types of claims. What I often find is that people believe that they have coverage only to find out when it is too late that they do not. How do we prevent this situation? By using a reputable insurance agent who is familiar with the type of insurance you need, by disclosing everything you plan to do at your farm to that agent in writing, by asking good questions of the agent to make sure you understand the coverages and by keeping notes on what is and is not covered under your insurance policy so you can decide with your agent’s help whether there might be different, additional insurance policies you may want to purchase.

When discussing these sorts of issues I frequently call on my friends and experts in the equine insurance area, Lucinda and Butch Human of Star H Equine Insurance in Advance, North Carolina. Lucinda and Butch have been selling equine insurance to horse and farm owners/lessees in the Southeast for decades and have a vast amount of knowledge on the subject. After discussing these matters with them in preparation for this article, I have the following thoughts to offer anyone who carries any type of equine-related insurance, whether it is farm insurance, instructor insurance, mortality insurance or another coverage.

Once you have found a reputable agent experienced with equine insurance, tell them everything you plan to do at your farm (e.g., pasture horses, grow hay, breed horses, board horses, teach lessons, etc.). And do it in an email if possible so that it is in writing so there will be no confusion about what you remembered to tell the agent. Also, you both will have that email to reference in the future if you want to be sure you have addressed everything which needs to be covered. If there are particular concerns about which you are worried, ask questions of your agent. The agent would much rather you ask questions in the beginning when placing the insurance coverage than find out the hard way when you have a claim that something is not a covered risk. Take notes on the agent’s answers to your questions or hang on to the email if the agent responds via email.

This month’s article will focus on misconceptions which are common on the property insurance side of things. Next month we will address misconceptions about other types of equine-related coverages (e.g., instructor coverage, mortality coverage and others).
What kinds of coverage might you be surprised to know you do NOT have with a typical farmowner’s or homeowner’s policy? Well, that is hard to say because folks have differing ideas of what they think is covered under these policies. Generally speaking, though, here a few examples of things which some people believe are covered under their policies but may not be:

1. Fencing – if your fencing around your pastures is damaged, your basic farmowners/homeowners’ policies do not pay to repair that damage. You can purchase separate fence insurance, but it is not something which is automatically covered by the common farmowners/homeowners’ policy.

2. Certain Downed Trees – If a storm blows a tree down on your farm, unless it lands on a covered structure, none of the cost to cut it up and haul it away is covered by your basic farmowners/homeowners’ insurance policy. Even if it is partially on a covered structure, the insurance company may only be required to remove that portion of the tree (limb, etc) which is actually touching the structure.

3. Barns and other Outbuildings Not Scheduled – Be sure to schedule all the structures on your property, from the barn to the run in out in the pasture to the tool shed by the pond. If a structure is not specifically scheduled (listed) on your policy so that it is clear it is expressly covered, you run the risk of it not being covered, so be sure to tell your agent about all your outbuildings!
Hopefully this information has been useful and will help us remember some of the things which are and are not covered by a standard farmowners/homeowners insurance policy. We can also strive to: (a) remember to find a knowledgeable agent when buying any insurance, especially equine-related insurance; (b) advise your agent in writing of all the structures on your property and all the activities you plan to pursue (or allow other to pursue) on your property; (c) ask any questions about coverage before buying the insurance; (d) confirm you understand the answers from your agent; and (e) request the agent respond via email with the answers so you have a written account of what you told them and what they told you. These simple steps will serve to make everyone’s lives easier rather than trying to recollect conversations from months ago during a claims situation.

Insurance exists for virtually any risk you would like covered, you just have to ask. Certain custom coverages may be very expensive and cost-prohibitive, but creative agents can find almost any coverage you would like to have given a few days. So think about your biggest concerns on your farm and/or about your horse and talk with your agent to be sure you are as covered as you can comfortably afford to be!

If you get into a bind and need assistance or just want to ask some questions to avoid getting in a bind, feel free to email me at dburch@rl-law.com. I often will answer a short and simple question for free if you are in North Carolina and I have time and know the answer off the top of my head! Or often know good equine lawyers in other states if you need a referral. If you don’t hear back from me quickly, it’s not because I don’t love you or think you have a great question or because I don’t know the answer (usually), I’m probably just really busy and haven’t had a chance to email back. And you can always buy the first hour of my time for $250 (my usual hourly rate for 2014 is $350). Lots of folks will save up all their equine (and some corporate or real estate) legal questions and short documents and sit with me for an hour and we will do as much as we can during that hour and it’s only $250. You can check out my Twitter feed @nchorselawyer as well as our firm’s Equine Law Group web page at http://www.rl-law.com/equine if you’re interested, and yes, in addition to providing what I hope are interesting and informative stories, this blog and the Twitter feed referenced above are also (in one way or another, I guess) an advertisement for legal services.





When Selling a Horse, Think Full Disclosure!

25 03 2014

We have all seen it before with friends, family and maybe even ourselves:

Stage One: Seller decides to sell a horse. Buyer wants a horse, comes and tries Seller’s horse and likes it. Buyer has pre-purchase veterinary examination done on the horse (or maybe does not have one done if the horse has low purchase price that keeps it from being cost effective to have a pre-purchase examination). The pre-purchase examination, if done, does not show anything significant. Seller says he or she knows of no problems with the horse and Buyer then buys the horse from the Seller.

Stage Two: Buyer gets the horse to his home stable or boarding barn and within the first few days or weeks Buyer notices health or behavioral issues with the horse. Buyer is unhappy and contacts Seller about returning the horse for a refund. Or Buyer asks Seller to reimburse Buyer for expenses which Buyer has incurred in his or her efforts to correct the health and/or behavioral issues with the horse. Seller saw no problems with the horse before Buyer took the horse away and, in fact, may believe that something about the Buyer’s boarding situation or treatment of the horse is giving rise to this health or behavioral issue and so declines to give Buyer a refund or to reimburse Buyer for expenses. So here we are – at an impasse. What next?

Stage Three: this stage is where things usually get sticky. If the Seller has provided veterinary records to the Buyer and given the Buyer an opportunity for a pre-purchase examination and either one was not done – or the one which was done showed no issues- then as long as the Seller has disclosed anything which might be reasonably relevant to a Buyer (injuries, illnesses, bad habits, bad behaviors, rider injuries and the like), than the Seller needs to decide whether he or she wants to take the horse back. Sometimes Sellers love the horse, can afford to and would rather take it back and give the Buyer a full or partial refund than have the horse with someone who does not want the horse. But if that is not the case and a Seller makes full disclosure and gives adequate opportunity for the Buyer to have the horse checked out, then a Seller is certainly within his or her rights to refuse to (a) unwind the sale transaction or (b) reimburse the Buyer.

That being said, if the Seller has not been totally forthcoming about all issues with the horse about which the Seller is aware, then the Seller may want to refund the Buyer and take the horse back or face some difficult questions in court if the Buyer pursues the Seller in that venue. Seller’s reputation could also be at stake if Buyer chooses to share his unpleasant story with third parties. Sometimes it is more important to a Seller to maintain a stellar reputation in the horse community than it is to prove he or she is right in a particular sales transaction with a particular horse. That being the case, sometimes a Seller will refund money and take a horse back even when he or she really has done nothing wrong from a legal perspective. Lots of different factors come into play in these situations. Is the Buyer well known as a good, honest person? Is the Buyer known to be difficult? Is the Buyer a family member or family friend? Is the horse widely known for being chronically lame or is the horse widely known to be tough as nails? Is the veterinarian who did the pre-purchase examination a friend of Seller who will be sued for a faulty pre-purchase examination if the Seller refuses to unwind the sale? Can the horse’s issue be rehabilitated by the Seller? There are lots of questions the Seller needs to ask him or herself. Depending on the answers to these types of questions, the Seller may decide to refund the Buyer – or not refund the Buyer.

If a Buyer requests a trial period with the horse before finalizing the sale, I advise Sellers to check out the location where the Buyer is taking the horse to be sure the Seller is comfortable with the personnel on duty at that location and the overall safety of that location for the horse. Absent some reason not to, Sellers with horses out on trial should require that the horse on trial be on individual turnout (alone with no other horses) during the trial period so that the risk of the horse being injured is minimized as much as possible. There are two schools of thought on trial periods. Some Sellers feel like it weeds out earlier the people who will end up wanting to send the horse back and it’s a good idea which saves time in the long run. Other Sellers feel that their horse is placed at risk when it leaves their farm and they do not want to risk injury to the horse (or liability for the horse should it injure someone or something) by allowing a trial period so they do not allow them. Both schools of thought are valid, so it again is up to the individual Seller to determine what makes the most sense to him or her on this issue.

How to minimize the number of these sticky situations for Sellers?

While we cannot guarantee a Seller will never have a disgruntled buyer even if every precaution in the world is taken, there are things Sellers can do to help prevent these situations. If the Seller can afford it and it makes financial sense (i.e., the more valuable the horse, the more sense it makes), I recommend having the horse examined by a veterinarian before listing it for sale so that you can produce a vet report to potential buyers when they approach you and advertise the horse “as is, where is, with all faults,” while offering potential buyers the opportunity to have the horse examined for themselves as well. Also good protection for Sellers is an excellent sales contract drafted by an equine lawyer in the Seller’s state which sets out in detail the terms of the sales transaction, provides that Buyer has had the opportunity to have the horse examined by a veterinarian and also has a place in the contract for the Buyer to initial a statement which says: (a) the horse is being sold “as is, where is, with all faults;” (b) if the Buyer declines to have an examination done, Seller is not responsible for any issues that arise after the sale; and (b) Seller has disclosed all issues with the horse which are known to him or her, but that Seller is not making any guarantees with regard to the health or behavioral issues of the horse. Such language in a sales contract will help to protect Sellers somewhat and will hopefully remind Buyers of the importance of a pre-purchase veterinary examination of a purchase prospect.

Next month’s article will be about what to think about when you are buying a horse!

If you get into a bind and need assistance or just want to ask some questions to avoid getting in a bind, feel free to email me at dburch@rl-law.com. I often will answer a short and simple question for free if I have time and know the answer off the top of my head! If you don’t hear back from me quickly, it’s not because I don’t love you or think you have a great question or because I don’t know the answer (usually), I’m probably just really busy and haven’t had a chance to email back. And you can always buy the first hour of my time for $250 (my usual hourly rate for 2014 is $350). Lots of folks will save up all their equine (and some corporate or real estate) legal questions and short documents and sit with me for an hour and we will do as much as we can during that hour and it’s only $250. You can check out my Twitter feed @nchorselawyer as well as our firm’s Equine Law Group web page at http://www.rl-law.com/equine if you’re interested, and yes, in addition to providing what I hope are interesting and informative stories, this blog and the Twitter feed referenced above are also (in one way or another, I guess) an advertisement for legal services.





When You are Dealing With Horses Across State Lines, Be More Cautious Than Usual

16 10 2013

Oftentimes the horse you are considering buying or leasing is in another state. Or perhaps you need to send your horse for treatment or training in another state. Or you regularly show your horse in another state. What is the legal impact of crossing state lines in those situations? The various issues that can be impacted are many more than this article could cover in the allotted space, but hopefully we have highlighted some common concerns for you. Examples always seem to help illustrate these types of issues best, so we will use a few here.
Imagine that you live in North Carolina and you are looking for the perfect reining horse. You find an amazing two year old gelding prospect with a stellar lineage in Wyoming. His price is high, $75,000, but the Seller is a well-known and successful trainer who is willing to keep him for 6 months and put him into her intensive training program for you before sending him to North Carolina. Thrilled with your find and the proposed terms of the transaction, you hire a reputable, local Wyoming veterinarian to conduct a thorough prepurchase examination on him, including radiographs of all four legs and feet and he checks out beautifully. You make arrangements with the Seller to pay for him and for her to start him in her training program. Then you line up a shipper from Colorado to pick him up and bring him to North Carolina in six months on one of his regularly scheduled routes to the east coast.
What can go wrong?
Example #1: When the gelding arrives in North Carolina, he is fine at first and then goes lame on the left front. Your North Carolina vet checks him out, takes radiographs and advises you that he has significant navicular concerns and that there is no way that the Wyoming vet could have missed these concerns if he had truly conducted a thorough prepurchase examination with the radiographs you requested.
So it appears here you were the victim of veterinary malpractice.
Example #2: When the gelding arrives in North Carolina he is sound, but based upon his physical condition and his lack of education, he does not appear to have been in a training program for the last six months. The Seller claims he was in training and that you simply do not understand how to ask him to do what he has been taught to do.
So it appears that the Seller has failed to provide the training promised and thus has breached your agreement with her.
Example #3: You get a call when the shipper picks up the gelding after his six months of training and he confirms the horse is in great condition when the Seller puts him on the shipper’s trailer. The Seller contacts you and also lets you know the horse is in perfect condition when he gets on the trailer and even takes pictures on her iPhone and texts them to you so you can see how beautiful he is when he is boarding the trailer. The shipper advises you that it will be at least 3 days before he can get the gelding to North Carolina because of the distance and the need to stop and stable the horse overnight along the way. You try to contact the shipper every few hours to check on the horse and after the first day the shipper stops returning your calls or providing you with updates. You become concerned and the next telephone call you get is from a veterinarian in Lexington, Kentucky who owns an equine layover facility. Apparently your gelding was delivered to the facility for an overnight stay and when he was taken off the trailer he was three-legged lame with multiple lacerations all over his face and legs. The veterinarian asked the shipper what happened and he claims that the horse would not climb off the trailer for the last 36 hours so he just left him on and the horse apparently became agitated and thrashed around inside the trailer, hurting himself. In short, your gelding ends up spending a week in Lexington at an equine specialty hospital being treated for multiple injuries caused by the excessive time on the trailer before he can come home to North Carolina – and even then he may never be sound again. And because of the trailer trauma, the gelding understandably now has an intense fear of trailering and will have to be tranquilized in order to get him on any trailer in the future.
So this time the Seller is not at fault, but a shipper from Colorado has been negligent in shipping him and has caused harm to your horse.
The Common Thread
The common thread here is that you have a real, valid legal claim against another person or company who resides in (or is based in) another state. Can you sue someone in another state? Absolutely! You can certainly sue where he or she is located and maybe where you are located, depending on his or her relationship with your state (whether they do business there or have other types of connections there). And since the amount of your damages is arguably over $75,000, you may be able to sue in federal court as well if you and the potential defendant reside/are headquartered in different states.
So what is the problem? The problem is that is incredibly expensive to sue someone, period. And especially so in another state or in federal court. But when you add thousands of miles to the picture (or the complexity of federal litigation), the dollar signs keep increasing. Definitely in Example #1 (and perhaps all the examples) you will need to hire an expert to testify on your behalf about what was the proper thing for the defendant to do in your situation. Experts are typically very expensive (several hundred dollars an hour).
Also, in lawsuits you engage in something called “discovery” which involves, among other things, taking depositions of key individuals in the case. To take someone’s deposition, you are generally required to go where that person resides. That could mean traveling with your lawyer (who is also expensive) to Colorado or Wyoming (and perhaps Kentucky in Example #3). Out of state depositions typically cost anywhere from $2,000-$5,000 per person by the time you factor in all related expenses.
The bottom line is that pursuing someone in another state is extremely expensive, so you should take as many precautions up front as possible to make sure you minimize the chance of a legal claim (e.g., have two different veterinarians do pre-purchase examinations if the horse is expensive; buy health and mortality insurance on the horse before shipping; carefully research shippers and check several of shipper references; and buy travel insurance for the trip from Wyoming to North Carolina). In short, be very, very careful when entering into transactions over state lines so you can avoid the stress and heavy expense of an interstate legal dispute.

If you get into a bind and need assistance or just want to ask some questions to avoid getting in a bind, feel free to email me at dburch@rl-law.com. I often will answer a short and simple question for free if I have time and know the answer off the top of my head! If you don’t hear back from me quickly, it’s not because I don’t love you or think you have a great question or because I don’t know the answer (usually), I’m probably just really busy and haven’t had a chance to email back. And you can always buy the first hour of my time for $250 (my usual hourly rate for 2013 is $325). Lots of folks will save up all their equine (and some corporate or real estate) legal questions and short documents and sit with me for an hour and we will do as much as we can during that hour and it’s only $250. You can check out my Twitter feed @nchorselawyer as well as our firm’s Equine Law Group web page at http://www.rl-law.com/equine if you’re interested, and yes, in addition to providing what I hope are interesting and informative stories, this blog and the Twitter feed referenced above are also advertisements for legal services.





NC Liens for the Care of Horses

19 06 2013

The two most common calls I seem to be receiving these days in my equine practice are from people who (a) have had horses left in their care for which they are not being paid board or (b) have allowed someone else to keep their horses only to find out later that the person has given away or sold or euthanized their horse without their knowledge or permission.

This article addresses the former situation. You have a horse on your property and the owner or other possessor of the horse (lessee, family member, etc.) is not paying the agreed upon boarding fees. What can you do? Well, assuming you have an agreement for how much they are supposed to pay you for board (written agreements are obviously best, but an oral agreement, especially if made in front of a witness, can be okay too), you may be able to successfully assert a boarding lien, also known as an agister’s lien or a stablemen’s lien, on the horse in your possession.

The statutes that you need to read are N.C. Gen. Stat. Section 44A-2 through 44A-6. You can find them at http://www.ncleg.net/gascripts/Statutes/Statutes.asp. Just put “44A” in the top search box. These statutes explain how to go about asserting a lien on a horse in your care when you aren’t being paid proper board for the animal. Basically they provide, in summary, that if you board animals for people for pay and you don’t get paid, you have a preferential lien on that animal so long as you don’t voluntarily give up possession of the animal and so long as you follow the requirements of those statutes. The statutes provide that once you have not been paid for a period of 30 days you may begin the process to assert your lien on the animal. After 30 days of not being paid you can serve a notice on the owner of the animal (or person with whom you dealt regarding the animal) that contains very specific factual information set out in the statute and giving them ten days from the day that they receive the notice to respond via certified mail and, if they disagree with your assertion of the lien, to request a hearing before the court to determine whether you have a lien. If they do not request such a hearing and you have met all statutory requirements, then you will be entitled to sell the animal at a public or private sale, depending on the situation. Typically a public sale is better because you are permitted to buy at that type of sale whereas you cannot buy the horse yourself at a private sale.

Once you’ve reached the point where you are permitted to sell the animal, you have to give notice of the sale to the owner (or person with whom you dealt regarding the animal) and that notice has to contain very specific information as well. If you follow the letter of the statute properly with regard to all the notices and the sale itself, the buyer at the sale will take title to the horse free and clear of any liens and the proceeds of the sale will pay, first, your reasonable expenses in pursuing the debt (the statute does not include attorney’s fees specifically, but you may have an argument that you are entitled to them), second, the past due boarding obligation owed for the animal’s board and care; and last, any surplus must be paid to the owner (or person with whom you dealt regarding the animal) or, if you cannot find him or her, into the clerk of court for the county in which you have been boarding the horse.

This is of course a very simplified summary of the law regarding liens on boarded animals, but hopefully it has given you a flavor of how the lien process works. And we are of course assuming here that you can actually find buyers to come to your sale if you have one. Right now there is a surplus of horses and in many situations, even where the statutory procedure is followed perfectly, there will be no buyers present at the sale to bid on the horses being sold. If that is the case then you’re still unfortunately out of luck when it comes to that horse. If you’re having a public sale, you can bid in at the amount of your damages and the horse becomes yours. That may be good or that may be bad, depending on your perspective (and the horse!). Then you have a choice to make about whether you keep the horse for yourself or donate the horse to USERL or similar organization. In some cases, I have had clients who asserted a lien on a horse which was left at their property without payment, sold the horse at a public sale, had to buy the horse themselves for the amount of their lien (basically just forgiving the debt to themselves) and ended up selling the horse to a buyer in another state whom they strategically located and contacted about the horse because of that animal’s specific attributes. That is a rarity, of course, but can actually happen and it is truly wonderful when it does!

My recommendation is to hire a good equine lawyer at least for the first time you decide to assert a boarding lien on a horse in your care. Once you’ve been guided through the process once by a legal professional and developed an internal procedure for asserting such a lien, the next time you just might be able to handle it all by yourself!

If you get into a bind and need assistance or just want to ask some questions to avoid getting in a bind, feel free to email me at dburch@rl-law.com. I often will answer a short and simple question for free if I have time and know the answer off the top of my head! If you don’t hear back from me quickly, it’s not because I don’t love you or think you have a great question or because I don’t know the answer (usually), I’m probably just really busy and haven’t had a chance to email back. And you can always buy the first hour of my time for $250 (my usual hourly rate for 2013 is $325). Lots of folks will save up all their equine (and some corporate or real estate) legal questions and short documents and sit with me for an hour and we will do as much as we can during that hour and it’s only $250. You can check out my Twitter feed @nchorselawyer as well as our firm’s Equine Law Group web page at http://www.rl-law.com/equine if you’re interested, and yes, in addition to providing what I hope are interesting and informative stories, this blog and the Twitter feed referenced above are also advertisements for legal services. I have to tell you that in bold, says the State Bar.





Do You Really, Really KNOW Your Trainer? Part One

18 01 2013

I’ve gotten several calls lately with a theme and it worries me a little…or a lot, depending on how I think about it.

The casual and relatively close-knit nature of the horse world lulls us into feeling like if we really like someone, or if someone we know and respect really likes someone, they are fine.  And that’s usually the case.  But the calls I’ve been getting lately point out to me that such is not always the case.  So, my next two posts will address this issue and offer some suggestions:

Case No. 1 – North Carolina gentleman we will call Sid entrusts his young but very well bred dressage horse Wellington to a seemingly well known trainer we will call Herman in another state.  Herman had a nice website and did a good job with some of Sid’s friends’ horses.  What Sid didn’t realize was that Herman had also done a really poor job with several horses and had been sued several times by his clients as a result, but Herman had moved around from state to state hoping his reputation didn’t catch up with him.  Over a period of a couple of years Sid paid Herman upwards of $30,000 in board and training fees, thinking that Wellington was going to come home a superstar.  That didn’t happen.  Instead what came home was a horse that was 2 years older and still barely green broke with injuries which were consistent with being quite overworked, especially for a horse Wellington’s age.  Wellington’s injuries have likely caused permanent damage in some of his joints.  So now what could have been a $75,000-$100,000 horse is now, at best, a $10,000 horse and that’s only IF Wellington is able to stay sound while being trained by a truly good trainer.

Moral of the Story?

Having a trainer in another state can be problematic because (a) it’s incredibly expensive to move your horse there and back, not to mention the cost of getting yourself there and back (which you should do relatively often so you can keep up with the progress and condition of your horse); (b) it’s frustrating to conduct litigation from afar if you have to sue the trainer at some point; (c) you usually have to hire a lawyer licensed in the state where the trainer is located if you have to sue him or her because you will probably have to sue him in state court where he is located (unless your damages exceed $75,000 and then you can sue in federal court if you are residents of different states); and (d) the odds of you hearing any horror stories about an out of state trainer are much lower than if you were using a local trainer in your own state (even if a few hours away).  Also, there are a lot of horse trainers who train horses for the love of the animal or because that’s all they know and not for the money.  As a result, lots of horse trainers are not flush with cash or property which they could use to pay a judgment which you might get against them if you sue them and win.  Can’t get blood out of a turnip and all.

Sometimes there are circumstances which make sending your horse to an out of state trainer a necessity.  If that’s the case, PLEASE do some solid research on the trainer BEFORE sending your horse out to him/her, research on the facility (is it owned by the trainer? Leased?  If leased, leases end and your horse could end up somewhere not as nice) and be very thorough.  Google the trainer, run a background check on him/her, talk to lots of folks whose horses he/she has trained over the years, be sure he/she has a lot of experience (preferably several years) and good results (ask for show records), ask to see his or her trainer/instructor liability insurance policy and get the name and number of his or her insurance agent and look at the litigation records in the states where you know he/she has lived to see if he/she has been sued a lot (or at all).  And, if you can afford it, get major medical and mortality insurance on your horse before you send him or her away (and make sure your horse is covered while outside your state – they usually are (see my former post on this issue), but double check with your agent.  And go to visit your horse while he or she is in training to ensure that progress is being made and that you can SEE that progress with your own eyes and/or feel it with your own backside (if you’re a rider too).  Sending your horse off without going to physically check in on him or her is a dangerous proposition.  I would probably make it a surprise visit if you can so that you will get a real feel for how and where your horse is being kept.  A good, honest trainer will not mind if you show up anytime.  If they require lots of notice before you can come, I would be wary.

All of the concerns and suggestions stated in this post are magnified and multiplied 100 times if you are considering sending your horse out of the country for training.  Do even more to investigate the trainer and facility BEFORE agreeing to send the horse and be more picky about what you require.  It’s very, very difficult and very, very expensive to engage in litigation across borders of countries.

That’s part one of “Do You Really, Really KNOW Your Trainer” and part Two will come soon!

If you get into a bind and need assistance or just want to ask some questions to avoid getting in a bind, feel free to email me at dburch@rl-law.com. I often will answer a short and simple question for free if I have time and know the answer off the top of my head! If you don’t hear back from me quickly, it’s not because I don’t love you or think you have a great question or because I don’t know the answer (usually), I’m probably just really busy and haven’t had a chance to email back.  And you can always buy the first hour of my time for $250 (my usual hourly rate for 2013 is $325).  Lots of folks will save up all their equine (and some corporate or real estate) legal questions and short documents and sit with me for an hour and we will do as much as we can during that hour and it’s only $250.  You can check out my Twitter feed @nchorselawyer as well as my web page at www.rl-law.com/professionals/dorothy-bass-burch/ or our firm’s Equine Law Group web page at www.rl-law.com/equine if you’re interested, and yes, in addition to providing what I hope are interesting and informative stories, this blog and the Twitter feed referenced above are also advertisements for legal services.  I have to tell you that in bold, says the State Bar.

Be careful out there and Happy New Year!





NOT a Good Practice to Have a Seller Veterinarian do Your Prepurchase Exam

30 05 2012

I would think this principle goes without saying but, based upon my experience recently, it may not, so I will say it:

If you are purchasing a horse from a vet, do not rely on him or her for your prepurchase examination of that horse. 

While most vets are wonderful, honest folks, there are a few who are not and you can avoid worrying about which is which if you have an independent, neutral veterinarian conduct your prepurchase examination on any horse you are considering for purchase from a veterinarian.  Frankly, most of the good veterinarians I know would refuse to do the prepurchase examination for you if they were selling you a horse for fear of having it even LOOK like a conflict of interest – and wanting to avoid that concern altogether by having a neutral vet come in to conduct the prepurchase exam.

The less savory seller vets will tell you that they will do the prepurchase for you at a discount to lure you into thinking that’s the way to go.  And before folks yell at me for that statement, I will say that I am certain there are perfectly fine, nice, honest vets who sell horses and offer a discounted prepurchase examination if you use them.  But my point is that you will not know which are the good folks who are genuinely trying to help you by doing the exam themselves and which are the vets who are trying to get you to let them conduct the prepurchase examination for their own selfish reasons.  So, in my professional opinion, the best practice is to avoid the scenario altogether and get a vet who has no connection whatsoever to the seller of the horse.  For example, they didn’t go to vet school together, they weren’t in each other’s weddings, their kids don’t play little league together….you get the point.  Just like when hiring a lawyer, you want a vet doing your prepurchase examination who ONLY has YOUR interests at heart and does not have any vested interest – financial, social or emotional – in the seller vet or in whether you purchase the horse or not.

Good luck out there!

If you get into a bind and need assistance or just want to ask some questions to avoid getting in a bind, feel free to email me at dburch@rl-law.com. I often will answer a short and simple question for free if I have time and know the answer off the top of my head! If you don’t hear back from me quickly, it’s not because I don’t love you or think you have a great question or because I don’t know the answer (usually), I’m probably just really busy and haven’t had a chance to email back. And you can always buy the first hour of my time for $250 (my usual hourly rate for 2012 is $325).  Lots of folks will save up all their equine (and some corporate or real estate) legal questions and short documents and sit with me for an hour and we will do as much as we can during that hour and it’s only $250.  You can check out my Twitter feed @nchorselawyer as well as our firm’s Equine Law Group web page at www.rl-law.com if you’re interested, and yes, in addition to providing what I hope are interesting and informative stories, this blog and the Twitter feed referenced above are also advertisements for legal services.  I have to tell you that in bold, says the State Bar.

Happy Riding!